The University of North Carolina Herbarium
(NCU) has catalogued approximately 40 of James Benedict's specimens. With
only about 10% of the collection catalogued, no doubt more specimens
collected by him will be found. He usually used "J. E. Benedict" on
Benedict collected specimens throughout the
southeastern United States. The earliest specimen that we have found to date
is Gratiola viscidula
collected in 1925 from the District of Columbia, while the latest we have
found is Lygodium palmatum
collected in 1960 from Charles County, Maryland.
Many of NCU’s specimens collected by Benedict
were sent as gifts from the Herbarium at Virginia Polytechnic Institute. For more information on Benedict’s
specimens at VPI, see Mitchell, Richard S. and Leonard J. Uttal
Benedict plant and seed collections now at Virginia Polytechnic
In June, 2010 Salli
Benedict (granddaughter of James Benedict), Gwendolyn Cummings and Jason
Cummings, visited the University of North Carolina Herbarium, and curators
showed them some of Benedict’s fern specimens. Another granddaughter, Betsy Benedict,
visited the Massey Herbarium at Virginia Polytechnic Institute:
9, 2010 : Found our way to the biology building and
met the friendly and informative curator of the herbarium, Tom Wieboldt. He was
so welcoming and open… he was generous with his time and showed us so many
things. He showed us where the ferns
are, most mounted as they were originally.
He showed us the field note journals that were donated and said they
were still being used, also that the ferns are still being used for
research. Showed us some ferns that
have never been mounted that are still layered in the original newspapers…
and the seed collection that I didn’t even know he had, and some huge pine
cones – as big as pineapples – that he shows to students to pique their
interest in biology. This was more
than I could ever have hoped for and well worth the effort to make the
connection. I learned more about
Granddaddy than I had known and it was great to have [my sons] Ben and
Christopher make this connection.
Benedict, James (1953) Autobiography of and by JAMES E.
BENEDICT graduating from Biltmore
Forest School (pp. 198-201) in 1907 IN The
Biltmore Immortals. L.C. Wittich, Darmstadt, Germany.
Washington, D.C., February 4, 1885
1887 to 1889 lived in St. Paul, Minnesota, where my father was in the real
1889: Returned to Washington where my
father entered the services of the United States National Museum as assistant
curator of Marine Invertebrates.
Primary education in elementary and high schools of Washington and nearby
Maryland. Graduated from Central High
School in June 1906.
Entered Biltmore Forest School in October 1906. Graduated in September 1907.
September 1907 secured temporary position in the Seed Laboratory of the U.S.
Department of Agriculture. Position made
permanent under Civil Service in 1908.
October 1910: Established and operated
for a year the Virginia State Seed Laboratory in Richmond.
October 1911: Established and operated
the first complete commercial seed testing laboratory for the Seed Trade Reporting
Bureau in Chicago.
December 28, 1911: Married Frances Burket in Washington and returned to Chicago.
July 1912: Bought the seed testing
business from the Seed Trade Reporting Bureau and moved it to Washington
where I have been operating it ever since under the name of Commercial Seed
1919: Opened branch laboratory in
On the side have given several lecture courses on Bryophytes and general
field botany at George Washington University and Catholic University. Am a member of the
Biological Society of Washington, the Washington Biologists’ Field Club and
the American Fern Society.
Hobbies: My main hobby is collecting
plants, mostly ferns and grasses of which I have an
herbarium of about 3000 mounted sheets.
Have covered much of the United States on automobile field trips with
various botanists, chiefly Dr. Edgar T. Wherry of the University of
Pennsylvania and have obtained many plants by exchanging with collectors in
foreign countries. Also collect seeds
and have a seed herbarium of several thousand specimens. Among minor hobbies, now dropped, was
archery and for several years was a member of the Potomac Archers.
Paternal grand-parents: James Benedict
and Thirsa Dibble Benedict, both of old established
Connecticut families of English ancestry.
Maternal grand-parents: Charles Junken from Hannover, Germany and Eliza Morrison Junken of Scotch-Irish parentage.
Father: James Everard
Born in South Norwalk, Connecticut, January 5, 1854. Graduated from Union College in 1880. Was resident naturalist on board the U.S.
Fish Commission steamers “Fish Hawk” and “Albatross” for several years after graduation. Married
Elizabeth Morrison Junken in November 1883. After two-year try at the real estate
business in St. Paul, Minn., he returned to scientific activities in
Washington. His work at the National
Museum consisted mainly of systematic studies of marine crustaceans and
annelids. At his retirement, in 1930,
he held the position of Chief of Biological Exhibits. As a sideline, he manufactured deepsea sounding devices, many thousand
of which were used by the U.S. Navy during World War I. He retired from government service in 1930
and died January 7, 1940.
Mother: Elizabeth Morrison Benedict,
born in Washington, D.C., August 4, 1861.
Died February 1, 1940.
Brother: Charles Junken
Benedict, born September 24, 1887.
Sisters: Elizabeth Jenny Benedict,
born November 25, 1889. Ruth Benedict,
born June 24, 1892.
Wife: Frances Burket
Benedict. Born March 2, 1887 in
Washington, D.C. Graduated from
Central High School, Washington, in 1908.
Employed in Seed Laboratory, U.S. Department of Agriculture until our
marriage in 1911. A trained seed
analyst, she has been a real help in running the laboratory whenever time and
Daughter: Frances Benedict, born May
15, 1913, graduated from University of Maryland in 1936. Hel positions in three separate government
agencies engaged in scientific work; Bureau of Home Economics, Bureau of
Standards and National Archives. Died
July 15, 1950.
Son: James Everard
Benedict III, born March 1st, 1915, graduated from University of
Alabama engineer school in 1940. Being
in the R.O.T.C., he was called in the Army in 1941 before Pearl Harbor. As an engineer attached to the Air Force he
spent twenty-seven months in the Pacific theatre during World War II. His speciality [sic] was building landing strips. In 1945 married Josephine Mosley
Smith. They have two children, Sarah
Frances Benedict, aged five, and James Everard
Benedict IV, aged two. Is now in the
Air Force with rank of lieutenant-colonel stationed at Langley Field,
Son: Joseph Burket
Benedict, born April 25, 1922. After
several years of pre-flight and flying training in various camps, he received
commission as a pilot in the Air Force and was expecting over-seas assignment
when the war ended in 1945. Entered
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and graduated in 1949. Married Rebecca Mosley in 1947. Two children, Anne Farrior
Benedict and Judith Benedict, three and two years old respectively. Joseph is branch manager of the Universal
C.I.T. Credit corporation in their Wilmington, Del. [Delaware], office.
Obituary, Washington Post
1970 [A more complete citation will be provided when it is found.]
Seed Testing Laboratory: James E. Benedict Jr. Dead at 84
James E. Benedict Jr., 84, who operated a seed
testing laboratory in the Washington area for 56 years, died Wednesday after
surgery at Washington Sanitarium and Hospital in Silver Spring.
Mr. Benedict graduated from the Biltmore
Forestry School in North Carolina and, in 1913, opened his laboratory at 945
Pennsylvania Ave. NW.
The firm, which analyzed seed quality for
commercial houses, did business there for 50 years, until the site was
acquired by the federal government in 1963 for the new FBI [Federal Bureau of
Investigation] building now under construction.
Mr. Benedict then moved the laboratory to 901
Pershing Dr., Silver Spring, where he continued to do business as Commercial
Seed Laboratories until his death.
Born in Washington, he attended Central High
School here. He taught a course in botany at George Washington University in
the 1930's and 40's and until recently conducted an annual student nature
hike through Rock Creek Park.
He was a past president of the Washington
Biologists Field Club and was a member of the Washington Botanical Society.
He had lived at 9403 Warren St., Silver Spring for more than 50 years.
Survivors include two sons, James E. III of
Hollywood, Fla. [Florida], and Joseph B., of Greenville, Del. [Delaware]; two
sisters, Elizabeth J. Benedict and Ruth Benedict, both of Silver Spring
[Maryland], and five grandchildren.
1. Benedict, J. E., Jr. (1924) An occurrence
of the Southern Maiden-hair in Maryland. American Fern Journal
On the stone wall built around a spring on the Noyes Estate in the new
subdivision of Woodside Park, Montgomery County, Maryland, the writer
discovered in the fall of 1922 a thriving plant of the southern Maiden-hair, Adiantum Capillus-Veneris
L. The fronds shriveled up during the winter but new ones came out the
following spring, and when they appeared to have attained their maximum
development, in July, were photographed and a few fronds collected. Shortly
thereafter the plant disappeared, having evidently been pulled up by some
chance visitor; although the clearing of the land for building purposes would
soon have obliterated the locality in any case.
Tests of the reaction material (a mixture of
fragments of cement and decomposed moss) in which the roots of the fern were
imbedded, made by Dr. Edgar T. Wherry, showed a specific alkalinity of 10.
The spring water itself was neutral and the alkalinity evidently came from
the decomposing cement.
How the plant got there in the first place can not be definitely determined, although there is a
greenhouse less than half a mile away and the spores may well have come from there, on of the
reaching by chance this favorable location on the spring wall. The noteworthy
fact in the case is that this southern species was able to establish and
maintain itself over one winter at least, so far north; the spring is located
approximately ten miles north of Washington. – J. E. Benedict, Jr.,
2. Benedict, J. E., Jr. (1932) Dryopteris floridana
(Hook.) Kuntze in North Carolina. American
Fern Journal 22(2): 56.
Early in April, 1931, the writer was one of a party, composed mostly of
George Washington University botany students under the leadership of Dr. Robert
F. Griggs, which visited the Coastal Plain section in eastern North Carolina.
April 6th and 7th found us camped on the north shore of beautiful Lake Waccamaw in Columbus County. The lake at this point is
separated only by a narrow ridge of sand, a few yards in width, from a
cypress swamp. Along the north edge of this swamp is an area, wet and muddy
but not perpetually inundated, lying between the water and the high,
cultivated ground. Here the writer found a colony of
several dozen plants of Dryopteris floridana (Hook.) Kuntze
(J. E. Benedict, Jr., no. 1247). In addition to being the first record of
this fern in the state of North Carolina it is a northward extension of its
range of approximately 120 miles, the former most northerly station being in
the vicinity of Charleston, S. C. The Waccamaw
plants are noteworthy also in being of unusually large size, one fruiting
frond in the collection of the writer being 118 centimeters long. Specimens
have been deposited in the U.S. National Herbarium in Washington and in the
herbarium of the Academy of Natural Sciences in Philadelphia. – J. E.
Benedict, Jr., Washington, D.C.
Wherry, Edgar T. and J. E. Benedict, Jr. (1939) Plant finds in June, 1939. Castanea 4(8):
4. Benedict, J.E., Jr. (1947) A new form of Asplenium platyneuron.
American Fern Journal 37(1): 11-12.
Last October I spent a week-end in St. Mary’s County, Maryland, along the
lower Potomac River. While walking along a woodland road I noticed a fringe
of Ebony Spleenwort growing on the low bank at the edge of the road. Among
the plants was a fern that I took at first glance to be another species. A
closer inspection, however, showed it to be an unusually luxuriant plant of
Ebony Spleenwort, with fronds more dissected than is characteristic of any of
the named form or varieties.
The plant was growing in the Gum-Pine
association common to this section, in which the dominant species are Sweet
Gum (Liquidambar styraciflua) and
Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda).
Associated plants were Ilex opaca, Myrica cerifera, and Quercus rubra
(Spanish Oak), with an undergrowth of Vaccinium,
Gaylussacia, and other plants. The soil,
locally called “white oak soil” because of its extreme hardness, is known as
Leonardtown loam, a form in which clay predominates.
Asplenium platyneuron f. dissectum Benedict, f. nov.
A f. typica pinnis usque ad 4 cm. longis, subpinnatis, segmentis 7-11-jugis, anguste oblongo-spathulatis, sub-pinnatifidis,
ala costali perangusta vel subnulla recedit.
Type in the U.S. National Herbarium, No. 1,896,275, collected in woods along
“Back Road” at Lanedon (Valley Lee P.O.), St.
Mary’s County, Maryland, October 21, 1945, by J. E. Benedict (No. 5230).
This form is nearest to f. Hortonae
(Davenp.) L. B. Smith, of which an isotype is in
the National Herbarium, but in that form the pinnae are only pinnatifid (the costal wing being relatively broad) and
the segments are subentire. In f. dissectum the plants are almost bipinnate-pinnatifid,
the primary pinnae being pinnatisect nearly or
quite to the costa and the ultimate segments deeply pinnatifid.
[Volume 37, Plate 1 on page 12 is a photograph of the plant.]
5.. Benedict, J. E., Jr. (1950) A new form of Lorinseria. American Fern Journal 40(2):
Although the fronds of Lorinseria areolata and Onoclea
sensibilis are similar in general aspect, they
can usually be told apart at a distance by the undulate to deeply lobed
margins of the primary lobes of the Onoclea.
Not so, however, in a large colony found by the writer while on a visit to
his on in Hampton, Virginia, last May. The fronds in this colony had the lobing of Onoclea, but
showed by their alternate pinnae, finely serrate margins and chain-like
venation along the principal veins that they were really Lorinseria.
The aspect and character noted are brought out in the accompanying figure,
kindly drawn by Mr. Joseph A. Devlin. No fertile fronds were seen. The
following formal name was suggested by Dr. E. T. Wherry.
Lorinseria areolata (L.) Presl forma onocleoides
J. E, Benedict, f. nov.
A f. typica pinnis profunde pinnatifidis, lobis obtusis, usque ad 8 mm. longis et 6 mm. latis differt.
Differs from the typical form in having the pinnae all deeply lobed, the
lobes obtuse, up to 8 mm. long and 6 mm. broad.
Type in the U.S. National Herbarium, no. 1918314, collected one mile due west
of the village of Aberdeen Gardens, Elizabeth City County, Virginia, in a
loblolly-pine (Pinus taeda) woods, May 30, 1949, by J. E. Benedict, Jr.
(no. 5540). The station is 4 miles due north of Newport News, which, however,
is in another county.
Special thanks to Dr. Tom Wieboldt, Curator of
VPI, for the gift to NCU in 2002 of several ferns collected in North Carolina
by J. E. Benedict. Dr. Wieboldt was also kind to
provide a photocopy of the Washington Post obituary of J. E. Benedict.