The University of North Carolina Herbarium (NCU) has cataloged 18 bryophytes
and 6 lichens collected by Francis Stuart Chapman, who usually used “Stuart
Chapman” or “F.S. Chapman” on herbarium labels.
University Herbarium (DUKE) has about 260 bryophytes collected by Stuart
Chapman. Other herbaria that curate
Chapman’s moss specimens include Florida Museum of Natural History (FLAS), University of British
Columbia (UBC), Missouri Botanical Garden
(MO), Academy of Natural
Sciences at Drexel University (PH), Botanical Research Institute of Texas
(BRIT), Butler University (BUT), California Academy of Sciences (CAS), Field
Museum (F), Farlow Herbarium at Harvard University (FH), New York Botanical
Garden (NY), Southern Illinois University (SIU), Acadia University (ACAD),
University of Washington (WTU), University of Wisconsin (WIS), University of
Wyoming (RM), Universite de Montreal (MT), Yale
University (YPM:YU), University of Colorado (COLO), University of Michigan
(MICH), University of Tennessee (TENN), University of Vermont (VT), and the Senckenberg Forschungsinstitut
und Naturmuseum (FR).
Herbaria that hold Chapman’s lichens include Arizona State University
(ASU), Harvard University (HUH), New York Botanical Garden (NY) and
University of Kansas (KANU).
of Chapman’s specimens can be found on lichenportal.org
on bryophyteportal.org. As herbaria continue to catalog their holdings it is
likely that more specimens collected by Stuart Chapman will be found.
is not known how Stuart Chapman came to be interested in botany. Over the course of his life he worked as a
purveyor of newspapers & magazines, a cotton weaver in textile mills, and
a gardener. Despite the fact that his
specimens are cited in many papers and are found in many herbaria, no
articles authored by him have been found nor was he associated with an
academic institution. He was a member
of the Sullivant Moss Society for at least one year
(1924) and submitted specimens to that organization’s herbarium.1 Most of Stuart Chapman’s specimens
found their way to herbaria via his collecting companion, Dr. Paul Otto Schallert.
ca. 1885, two years old
Photograph courtesy of Jean Stuart Chapman Snow
Stuart Chapman, called “Stuart” by the family, was born on 4 June 1883 in Oneonta,
Otsego County, New York to Edwin Pier Chapman and Harriet Stuart Robinson.
Stuart had a younger brother, William D. Chapman. When Stuart was 14 years old and William 8
years old, their mother died. The
following year Edwin, an optician, and William moved to Philmont,
NY, but Stuart remained in Oneonta to complete high school. Stuart rejoined the family in Philmont and, according to the 1905 New York census,
worked as a newspaper carrier. 2, 3
re-married, and according to family lore, Stuart did not get along with his
step-mother and her two daughers so left home at
age 16. According to Jean Stuart
Chapman Snow, William’s daughter, “Stuart wanted Dad to come with him, but
Dad was too young.” 4
1910 Stuart, in his mid-twenties, had moved to Leaksville,
Rockingham County, North Carolina, and was employed as a weaver in a cotton
mill.5 The area around Leaksville,
including the villages of Spray and Draper, was rich in textile mills. Draper-American Mills, Wearwell
Sheeting Mill, Spray Woolen Mills, Rhode Island Mill, Lily Mill, Nantucket
Mill, Spray Bleachery, American Warehouse, Athena
Mills, and Wearwell Bedspread Mills all were found
in the area.6
In 1924 the Tri-City Hospital, funded in part by a $7,500.00
gift from Marshall Field & Company, was founded by Dr. H. Carlyle Dixon,
Dr. C.V. Tyner, and Dr. Kenan Casteen.
In 1968, the villages of Leaksville, Spray
and Draper merged to form Eden, North Carolina.7
Snow writes, “In 1914 Dad’s [William D. Chapman] and Stuart’s Great-Aunt
Emily Stuart died, [and] Stuart was one of her legatees, along with William
D. Chapman. Dad’s reply (1915?) to a
query on Stuart’s whereabouts says “The last seen of him was about two years
ago. Since then nothing has been heard
from him. Perhaps if you try Spray,
North Carolina you might get in touch with him. He made his home there about three years
ago and possibly may be there now…”4, 11
1920 Stuart Chapman had changed his job and residence: he was working as a landscape gardener and
living as a boarder with Solomon Pardue, a laborer
in a furniture factory, Solomon’s wife and six children, in Winston-Salem,
Forsyth County, North Carolina.8
It is about this time – 1919 – that the first herbarium specimens
collected by Stuart Chapman appear. He
collected Hypnum imponens from Laurel Branch in Alleghany
County, North Carolina on 5 December 1919 and Bazzania trilobata from that same location on 1
April 1920. It is not known what
sparked Chapman’s interest in botany or inspired him to focus on bryophytes,
though the fact that he’d gotten a job as a gardener certainly shows an
interest in plants.
Chapman collected many bryophytes in North Carolina in the 1920’s. Wadesboro, Anson County was a frequent collecting
locality in 1921 (DUKE: 17 specimens; NY:
1 specimen; NCU: 2
specimens). He collected two specimens
in Walnut Cove, Clay County in 1922 (DUKE).
By far Chapman’s most frequent collecting area during the decade was
Forsyth County: NCU, MO, NY and DUKE
hold more than 100 bryophytes collected near Winston-Salem. Several note specific collecting locations
such as “south of cotton mill” and “Hanestown,”
reflecting the importance of textiles to the local economy, and Stuart’s
familiarity with mill life.
specimens collected by Stuart Chapman were handled in some way – packaged by,
or determined by – Paul Otto Schallert, M.D.
(1879-1970). How and when Chapman and Schallert met is not known. They both lived in Winston-Salem: Schallert
1910-1943; Chapman ca. 1920-1930. Schallert was a physician who practiced out of his house
on South Main Street, though he probably had privileges in area hospitals –
perhaps including Tri-City Hospital in the milltowns
of Leaksville-Spray-Draper, so maybe he encountered
Chapman as a patient. Schallert was interested in all aspects of natural
history and collected fungi, bryophytes, lichens, and vascular plants, so he
was most likely Chapman’s avenue to depositing specimens in herbaria. They certainly collected bryophytes
together: on 1 August 1920 they were
both at Flat Rock, Forsyth County, NC -- Chapman collected Porella platyphylloidea
(Schwein.) Lindb. (DUKE
74190) and Schallert collected Calypogeia trichomanis Spreng.
ex Mitt. (DUKE 66592). Schallert and
Chapman also collected in Glade Valley, Alleghany County, NC together in
November 1920. Schallert
and Chapman are listed as co-collectors on a specimen of Frullania squarrosa (Reinw.
et Al) Dum. from Wadesboro, Anson County, NC in
spent one day, 6 April, 1923 collecting bryophytes at Mission Mountain in
Albemarle County, Virginia (DUKE, NY).
Between 1922 and 1932 Chapman made about two dozen collections around
Stroudsburg, Monroe County, Pennsylvania (DUKE, MO).
1930 US census has Stuart Chapman still living in Winston-Salem, but now his
occupation is listed as “Proprietor, News Dealer; Industry: Newspaper Stand.” 9
collected only sporadically in the early 1930’s, but then his botanical
activity rebounded in 1936 when he began collecting in the area around
Milford, Pike County, Pennsylvania. A
social security application dated July, 1941 reveals that Chapman lived at
the corner of 7th Street and High Street in Milford, though he had
probably lived in the area for several years prior to that, perhaps as early
as 1932 judging from specimen collection locations and dates.2 Chapman found work as a gardener for
Charles F. Haubert in Newfoundland, Wayne County,
Pennsylvania about 27 miles west of Milford.2 Dr. Paul Schallert
and Stuart Chapman re-united to botanize in Pike County, Pennsylvania on 25
August 1935, 25 September 1936, 1 October 1936, and 1 October 1937.
specimens collected by Stuart Chapman dated later than 1937 have yet been
some point Stuart Chapman returned to Winston-Salem, lived at 1114 Butler
Street and worked as a magazine salesman.
He contracted pneumonia and died in the City Hospital on 24 December
Stuart Chapman Snow says of her uncle, “Our Chapman line is related to Johnny Appleseed (John Chapman), so I’ve wondered if
Stuart ended up with some of Appleseed’s wandering genes.” 10 Just
as John Chapman’s botanical legacy was apple orchards (and hard cider!)
across America’s frontier, Stuart Chapman’s botanical legacy is herbarium
specimens used by scientists around the globe to document biodiversity. Or, as Shanna Oberreiter observed, “Stuart
Chapman was a wandering, rolling stone who did gather moss.”
ca. 1893, nine or ten years old
Photograph courtesy of Jean Stuart Chapman Snow
Stuart Chapman specimens in the Herbarium Senckenbergianum (FR)
by Dr. Gerhard Winter
specimens of Stuart Chapman came to our herbarium in 1950 as part of the
collection of Carl Bosch (1874-1940) which we received as a bequest by his
Bosch was a German chemist and engineer and Nobel laureate in Chemistry (1931). He was a pioneer in the field of
high-pressure industrial chemistry and founder of IG
Farben, at one point the world’s largest chemical
Bosch also collected many natural objects, mostly bryophytes and
beetles. His collection of palaearctic beetles includes about 100,000 specimens and
his bryophyte collection is roughly 30,000 specimens. He personally collected only few bryophytes
around his home in Heidelberg; most of the specimens were bought from other
collectors. Unfortunately we do not
have any documentation from him, when and from whom he bought the bryophtyes. I
suspect that Bosch bought the bryophyte specimens of Chapman together with
those of Paul O. Schallert, maybe directly from Schallert, but I do not know how Schallert
and Bosch came into contact.
Colleagues at the Carl Bosch museum in Heidelberg checked the archives
but did not find any documents relevant to this topic.
only about 10% of the Bosch bryophyte collection at FR catalogued to date, I
have found 88 specimens collected by Stuart Chapman, and 392 specimens
collected by Paul Schallert. I am sure that many more will be found as I
continue my research on the Bosch bryological
Specimen collected by Stuart Chapman in the Senckenberg Forschungsinstitut
und Naturmuseum (FR)
Paul O. Schallert wrote the scientific name of the
specimen, Porella platyphyloides.
Dr. Gerhard Winter of FR has noted Carl Bosch’s handwriting on the label.
more information about the life of Carl Bosch, read The Alchemy of Air: A Jewish
Genius, a Doomed Tycoon, and the Scientific Discovery that Fed the World but
Fueled the Rise of Hitler by Thomas Hager.
PUBLICATIONS: NONE KNOWN
Williams, R. S., Edward B. Chamberlain, C. M. Roberts, George B. Kaiser,
Geo. H. Conklin and Charles C. Plitt.
1925. Annual Reports, Sullivant Moss Society, 1924. The Bryologist 28(1): 9-15.
Jean Stuart Chapman Snow to Carol Ann McCormick; email of 3 January 2014,
1905 New York
Census, Claverack, Philmont, p. 439, ED 4.
Jean Stuart Chapman Snow to Carol Ann McCormick; email of 3 January 2014, 9:09pm.
States Census, 2 May 1910, ED 0155, Sheet 23-A, Line 31 (Soundex T-1271, Roll
26; Census Film M-1548, Roll 22.
www.leaksville.com/MillNews.htm accessed on 8 January 2014.
accessed on 8 January 2014.
1920 United States Census, Winston-Salem, Forsyth County, NC, Vol. 23, ED
101, Sheet 11B, line 87. (Soundex
M-15979, Roll 24; Census Film T-625, Roll 1298)
1930 United States Census, 10 April, Winston-Salem City, Forsyth County,
NC. RollT626-1690, Sheet 11A, printed
Pers. Comm. Jean Stuart Chapman
Snow to Carol Ann McCormick; email of 7 January, 2014, 3:25pm.
accessed on 13 January 2014.
12. Pers. Comm. Gerhard Winter to Carol Ann McCormick;
email of 14 January 2014, 6:23am.