The University of North Carolina Herbarium
(NCU) has catalogued only about twenty plants collected by John White Chickering, Jr. It is likely that more will be found as
cataloguing continues. Most of Chickering's
specimens that have been found at NCU are from Roan Mountain, Mitchell
County, North Carolina and were collected in June and July of 1880.
courtesy of Gallaudet University11
J. W. Chickering,
Jr. was born Bolton,
Massachusetts (USA) in 1831. He received an A.B. in 1852 and an A. M. in
1855 from Bowdoin College in Maine (USA). Chickering
was a founding member of the Portland Society of Natural History in 1843, and
served as the Society's second president from 1849 to 1851.
On November 24, 1843, some 24 Portland luminaries met at Mr. Stearn's schoolhouse on Free Street for the purpose of
organizing an investigative society to study Nature. Those in attendance were
already well known in Maine and in other parts of New England. They included
the Hon. Ether Shepley, Rev. John White Chickering,
Edward Gould, John Neal, Dr. Jesse Wedgwood Mighels
(pronounced "Miles"), Henry Quincy, Dr. William Wood, and Dr.
Augustus Mitchell ... It was decided that evening that a natural history
organization should be established in the city of Portland. Within a month,
the Society found a home in the Merchants Exchange Building on Middle Street.
The group was incorporated in 1850 as the Portland Scoiety
of Natural History. (10, p. 3).
Ether Shepley was chosen as president of
the newly organized PSNH from 1843 - 1848. Judge Shepley was both a former US
senator and a US attorney for the state of Maine, as well as a future Chief
Justice of the Maine Supreme Court. Shepley handed over the presidency to John W. Chickering, minister of the High Street Congregational Church.
Unlike Shepley, who was considered an armchair naturalist, Chickering was very active in the field, having climbed
Mount Katahdin in 1850 and again in 1858. He collected a number of alpine
plant specimens from the summit of Katahdin in 1850 that are still housed in
herbaria at the Smithsonian Institution, New York Botanical Garden, and the
Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences. Chickering
also climbed Mount Washington in 1862 for the purpose of collecting alpine
plant specimens. (10, p. 4)
It is interesting that Edward S. Morse,
curator of PSNH ca. 1866, went on to become the director of the Peabody
Museum at Harvard University, and to found The American Naturalist.
Chickering published frequently in this journal.
After teaching posts that included Theological Seminary of Bangor [Maine]
(1852-1856), Seneca College Institute (principal 1857-1858; pastor
1860-1870), and pastorates in Springfield, Vermont and Exeter, New Hampshire,
Chickering became a professor of Natural Science
and Pedagogy at Gallaudet College in 1870. In1884 Chickering
and Prof. J.C. Gordon presented papers on the education of the deaf to the
Section of Economic Science and Statistics of the American Academy of Arts
and Science, an organization in which he was an active member for many years:
Prof. J. W. Chickering,
jun., and Prof. J.C. Gordon of the National deaf-mute college, Washington,
read papers upon the condition of deaf-mutes and deaf-mute instruction.
Deaf-mutes average 1 in 1,500 of the world's population. In the United States
there were 33,878 reported by the last census. Over 15,000 have received an
education, and are engaged in the ordinary pursits
of life, 12,000 are of school age, and from 1,000 to 2,000 are uneducated
adults. There are fifty-eight schools and one college, for this class, in
this country. The usefulness of the educated and the pitiful condition of the
uneducated were described by Professor Chickering. Proceedings
of the Section of Economic Science and Statistics. Science 4 (87): 346-348.
It is interesting to note that Chickering was a co-author with North Carolina botanist Gerald McCarthy who was deaf and a student at Gallaudet. (For more
information about Gerald McCarthy, see Troyer, J.R. (1999) Stopped ears, open
mind: Gerald McCarthy (1858 - 1915): North Carolina botanist. J. Elisha
Mitchell Sci. Soc. 115 (4): 201-212.)
Chickering was married to Luciana Jameson Chickering
(1834-1893), and together they had two daughters, Frances E. Chickering (1851-1941) and Luciana Chickering
Chickering spent 29 years at Gallaudet, and retired in 1899. 1,
2 He died in 1913, and is buried in Rock Creek Cemetery in the District
of Columbia. 12
CHICKERING'S BOTANICAL WORK
Chickering seems to have been particularly interested in alpine
plants. Eastman (10) refers to Chickering's
expeditions to Mount Katahdin in 1850 and 1858. In 1880 he ventured to Roan
Mountain in Mitchell County, North Carolina. This summer on Roan Mountain was
a highpoint in Chickering's botanical career, as he
published descriptions of several new taxa he found there.
Three years ago a party of fifteen from
the Nashville meeting of the American Association [American Association for
the Advancement of Science, AAAS] made the ascent [of Roan Mountain], by
invitation of Gen. Wilder, the owner of the mountain, and the writer [Chickering] collected largely at that time. During the
past summer an almost continuous scientific convention has been informally
assembled on the summit; Profs. Goodale and Gibbs
of Harvard; Prof. T. C. Porter of Easton; Dr. Leidy and Messrs. Thos. Meehan
and Joseph Wilcox of Philadelphia; Capt. J. Donnell Smith, of Baltimore;
Profs. Phillips and Symonds, of Chapel Hill, and Mrs. Geo. Andrews, of
Knoxville, being of the number, so that not only the plants but the minerals,
the rhizopods, the mollusks and the meteorology
were all looked after. J.W.
Chickering (1880) A Summer on Roan Mountain.
Botanical Gazette 5 (12): 144-148.
Roan Mountain Rattlesnakeroot (Asteraceae),
was originally named Nabalus roanensis Chick., and was
published in 1880 in Botanical
5: 155. "Found sparingly on the summit of Roan mountain, N.C.,
growing in the clefts of precipices," notes Chickering
in his description of the plant. The lectotype is found
in US. This plant is now known as Prenanthes
roanensis (Chick.) Chick.
Blue Ridge Three-lobed Coneflower, Rudbeckia rupestris Chick. was
published in 1881 in Coult. Bot. Gaz.vi:
188. This plant is found in Kentucky, Tennessee and North Carolina, and is
now known as Rudbeckia triloba L. var. rupestris
Roan Mountain Bluet, Houstonia
purpurea L. var. montana
Chick. is now considered to be a nomenclatural
synonym of Houstonia montana
Small. NCU has one specimen that Chickering
collected on July 5, 1880, from an altitude of 6,200 feet on Roan Mountain
(NCU Accession number 30114). According to Weakley (7), this plant grows
"in crevices of rock outcrops at the summits of high elevation peaks of
the Southern Blue Ridge, also in thin, frost-heaved, gravelly soils of grassy
balds, near summit outcrops, from 1250-1950 m in
elevation... This species is endemic to the high Blue Ridge of northwestern
North Carolina and northeastern Tennessee, notably occurring on Roan
Mountain, Grandfather Mountain, Bluff Mountain, and Three Top Mountain."
It is listed as a federally endangered plant.
Chickering wrote of his botanical explorations in
several scholarly journals (see PUBLICATIONS, below), and also presented his
findings to a more general audience of a meeting of the Appalachian Mountain
Club, held June 14, 1882 in Boston, where he presented "Roan mountain
notes.”9 In 1888 Chickering was one of
four lecturers for the Amateur Botanical Club of Washington:
A WINTER course of four lectures before
the Amateur Botanical Club of Washington was as follows: Prof. Miles Rock on
the Guatemala forests, Prof. J.W. Chickering on the
flora of Alaska, Prof. Edw. S. Burgess on the fresh-water algae of the
District of Columbia, and Dr. George Vasey on some important medical plants.
The club is in a prosperous condition, having forty members and a good
attendance at its regular meetings. Notes
and News. Botanical Gazette 12 (2): 46-48.
Chickering was listed as "Chickering,
Prof. J.W., D.C. [District of Columbia]" in the Botanical Directory for
North America and the West Indies of 1873.6
It seems that Chickering
had wide interests, for he took note of not only botanical matters, but
zoological and geological as well. In 1854 he privately printed "List of
Marine, Freshwater, and Land Shells Found in the Vicinity of Portland, Maine.”3
The list contained 20 land snail taxa.4 Chickering's
collection of 1,500 shells was given to the Gallaudet College museum, but was
later donated to the Smithsonian Institution.2 In 1879 "Prof.
John W. Chickering, Jr. gave a description of the
newly discovered cave at Luray, Page county, Va., which he said surpassed the
Mammoth cave in beauty and in the size of some of its chambers, and was inferior
only in total extent".8
Chickering, J. W., Jr. (1854) List of marine, freshwater, and
land shells found in the vicinity of Portland, Maine. Double sheet. Privately
printed by the author. [reproduced on pp. 243-245 of
Bibliography of North American conchology previous to the year 1860, by W. G.
Binney (Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, Vol.
Chickering, J.W., Jr. (1869) The
flowers of early spring. The American Naturalist 3 (3): 128-131
Chickering, J.W., Jr. (1870) Our
native trees and shrubs. The American Naturalist 4(4): 214-218.
Chickering, J.W., Jr. (1871) What
I found at Hampton Beach. The American Naturalist 5 (6): 356-360.
Chickering, J.W., Jr. (1872) Botany
forty years ago. The American Naturalist 6 (8): 485-487.
Chickering, J.W., Jr. (1873) The
flora of the Dismal Swamp. The American Naturalist 7(9): 521-524.
Chickering, J.W. (1876) Catalogue of the alpine and
sub-alpine flora of the White Mountains of N.H. [New Hampshire]. Field and
Forest, Vol. ii, Washington.
Chickering, J.W. (1876) Field notes in New England.
Field and Forest, Washington, D.C. [September, 1876, precise citation
unknown; found in Botanical Bulletin 1 (12): 51].
Chickering, J.W. (1878) Catalogue of phaenogamous and vascular cryptogamous
Plants collected during the summers of 1873 and 1874 in Dakota and Montana by
Dr. Elliott Coues; with which are incorporated those collected in the same
region at the same times by Mr. G. M. Dawson. IN: Bull. U.S. Geol. and Geog. Surv., 1878, Vol. iv, No. 4. Washington, D.C.
Chickering, J.W. (1880) A
summer on Roan Mountain. Botanical Gazette 5 (12): 144-148.
Chickering, J. W. (1880) Nabalus Roanensis,
n. sp. Botanical Gazette 5 (12): 155
Chickering, J.W. (1881) Notes
on Roan Mountain, North Carolina. IN: Philosophical Society of
Washington, Science 2(33): 62-63.
Chickering, J.W. (1881) Prenanthes (Nabalus)
Roanensis. Botanical Gazette 6(3):
Chickering, J.W. (1881) Rudbeckia rupestris,
n. sp. Botanical Gazette 6 (3): 188-190.
Chickering, J.W., Jr. (1882) The
Canadian flora. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 9(11): 140. [Here, Chickering lists his address as "Deaf-Mute College,
Chickering, J.W., Jr. (1888) Queries:
Are bats diurnal? Science 12(290): 96.
Chickering, J.W., Jr. (1888) Some
Maine plants. Botanical Gazette 13 (12): 322.
Smith, John Donnell, Isaac C. Martindale, J. W. Chickering,
Jr., Chas. E. Bessey, A. W. Chapman, R. I. Cratty, J. D. Davis, Chas. F. Johnson, C. E. Smith, and
Gerald McCarthy (1886) Specimens
and specimen making. Botanical Gazette 11 (6): 129-134.
Chickering, J.W. (1894) The
botanical landscape. Science 23 (578): 118-119.
Other herbaria that the Harvard University
Herbaria database (5) lists as possessing specimens by Chickering
CGE (University of Cambridge, Cambridge, England, U.K.)
F (Field Museum, Chicago, Illinois, USA)
GH (Gray Herbarium, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA)
MO (Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, Missouri, USA)
NY (New York Botanical Garden, New York, USA)
P (Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle,
PH (Academy of Sciences, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA)
POM (Pomona College, Claremont, California, USA)
TENN (University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee, USA)
WELC (Wellesley College, Wellesley, Massachusetts, USA).
1. Stafleu, Frans A. and
Richard S. Cowan. 1978-1988. Taxonomic Literature: a selective guide to
botanical publications and collections with dates, commentaries and types,
2nd edition. Utricht: Bohn, Scheltema
2. Gallaudet Almanac. Washington, DC: The Gallaudet College Alumni
Association, 1974. page 231.
3. Chickering, J. W., Jr. 1854. List of marine, freshwaster, and land shells found in the vicinity of
Portland, Maine. Double sheet. Privately printed by the author. [reproduced on pp. 243-245 of Bibliography of North
American conchology previous to the year 1860, by W. G. Binney
(Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, Vol. 5, 1864].
4. Martin, Scott M. 2000. Terrestrial snails and slugs (Mollusca: Gastropoda) of Maine. Northeastern Naturalist [Humboldt
Field Research Institute].
6. Anon. (1873) Botanical Directory for North America and the West Indies.
Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 4(11): 49-53.
7. Weakley, Alan S. (2007) Flora
of the Carolinas, Virginia, Georgia and Surrounding Areas, Draft of Jan.
1007. University of North Carolina Herbarium, North Carolina Botanical
Garden, Chapel Hill, NC.
and Paleontology. The American Naturalist 12 (11): 719.
9. Scientific news. The American Naturalist 17(1): 116-118.
10. Eastman, L.M. (2006) The Portland Society of
Natural History: The rise and fall of a venerable institution. Northeastern
Naturalist 13 (Monograph 1): 1-38.
11. John White Chickering. Accessed on 23 November 2016. http://giving.gallaudet.edu/HOF/pastinductees/john-chickering
12. John White Chickering. Find A Grave Memorial #38919887. Accessed on 23 November 2106. http://www.findagrave.com/cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=38919887
Special thanks to the following individuals for providing information on
J.W. Chickering, Jr.:
Jane Rutherford, Reference & Instructional Librarian of Gallaudet
Scott Martin, for information on Chickering's
zoological interests and for providing a reprint of Eastman (2006).