Liriodendron tulipifera flower

The University of North Carolina
A Department of the North Carolina Botanical Garden



Collectors of the UNC Herbarium
Information compiled by Carol Ann McCormick, March 2016

Eugene Woldemar Hilgard
(5 January 1833 – 8 January 1916)

The University of North Carolina Herbarium has catalogued approximately 30 specimens collected by E.W. Hilgard. More may be found as cataloguing of the collection continues. Most of Hilgard's specimens in NCU's collection date from 1858-1867 and are from the southern Mississippi.  Hilgard was catholic in his collecting tastes:  Carex, Pinus, Xyris, Vitis and Sarracenia are represented in NCU’s collection.  He was a prolific writer in both German and English covering topics from geology and botany to kindergarten education.

“During the [American] Civil War the exercises of the University [of Mississippi in Oxford] were suspended, and Hilgard… was placed in charge of the library and equipment by the governor and thus escaped service in the [Confederate] army.” (6)  While Hilgard probably had little time to devote to botany during those years, and he usually did not write specific location information beyond “S. Miss.” (southern Mississippi) on his specimens, NCU  does have three specimens Hilgard collected in 1866 that specify that they were collected from Oxford, Mississippi. 


Eugene Hilgard was born in Zweibrucken, Germany on 5 January, 1833, the youngest of nine children, to Theodore Erasmus and Margareth Hilgard.1,3,6  Theodore Erasmus Hilgard, “held for a number of years the position of chief justice of the court of appeals (supreme court) of [Rhenish Bavaria].  [Theodore] was a prominent Liberal in the most liberal province of Germany, and, chafing under the reactionary tendencies and measures that had become especially rampant after the futile attempt to overthrow them, made by some of the hot-headed youth at Frankfort-on-the-Main in 1833, he conceived the purpose of transplanting his large family to the United States, where he hoped to find the ‘ideal republic’ realized. Despite brilliant offers of advancement from the government, he carried out this purpose in the autumn of 1835, accompanied by numerous testimonials of regret and esteem of from his constituents, and carrying a letter from General Lafayette commending him to the good offices of the American people…Landing at New Orleans on Christmas day [1835], after a long passage of 62 days [from Havre, France], the family proceeded up the Mississippi, which was running with heavy ice, to St. Louis, and thence to Belleville, Illinois, where [Theodore] purchased a farm already well developed, which remained the family residence for many years… Schools at the time were few and primitive in that region; hence [Theodore’s children] received instruction from [Theodore], the older ones also teaching the younger; all, however, with many interruptions from participation in the work of farm and household, inevitable in pioneer life.” 1

Eugene Hilgard returned to Germany in 1849 to study at the University of Heidelberg, and graduated with honors and a doctor’s degree in 1853. Hilgard’s advisor at Heidelberg was Robert Bunsen (of “Bunsen burner” fame), and Hilgard’s thesis was entitled “Beitrage zur Kenntniss de Lichtflamme.”  While in Europe Hilgard also studied at the University of Zurich in Switzerland and at the Royal Mining School in Freiberg, Germany.  While visiting Spain he met Jesusa Alexandrina Bello, daughter of a Spanish army officer.2   Hilgard was quite a linguist and could converse fluently in German, Spanish, English, and French; he could also easily read Sanscrit, Italian, Greek, Latin, and Portuguese.”6

Hilgard returned to the United States in 1855, served as the Assistant State Geologist of Mississippi (1855-1857), then was a lecturer in chemistry at the National Medical College in Washington, D.C. from 1857-1858.5  [He] began geological exploration work in Mississippi in 1855 and was appointed state mineralogist of that State in 1858.  In 1860 he revisited Spain, married Miss Bello, and resumed his work in Mississippi in November of that year.  During the intervention of the [American] Civil War he pursued the chemical work required by the Southern Confederacy.”3  “He was appointed an agent of the Confederate ‘Nitre Bureau,’ and at the siege of Vicksburg was ordered to erect calcium lights on the bluffs for the illumination of the Federal gunboats in their attempt to pass the city.  The fleet, however, passed before he could complete the arrangements for light.”6 The University of Mississippi has a collection of Hilgard’s correspondence from his time in that state.

   “In 1866 he was chosen professor of chemistry in the University of Mississippi – the professor of geology, zoology and botany.  In 1872 he left Mississippi to take a position on the faculty of the University of Michigan [Ann Arbor, Michigan], but remained there only two years, when he was called by the Regents of the University [of California, Berkeley], to California in 1874… His  work in the investigation of soils in connection with their native vegetation, of the influence of climate on the formation of soils and especially of the nature of ‘alkali soils’ and their reclamation, a problem quite new not only in this country but in other arid regions, achieved for him a reputation as wide as the world of science.”3  From 1881 to 1883 he was a member of the Northern Transcontinental Survey.  He was a Professor of Agricultural Chemistry and Founder & Director of the State Agricultural Station from 1875 to 1904.  Hilgard is best remembered for his contributions to soil science. The mineral hilgardite (Ca2B5O9Cl·H2O) was named in his honor.7

Eugene and Alexandrina Hilgard had three children.  His son died in 1889 and Alexandrina died in 1893.  Two daughters, Marie Louise Hilgard and Alice Hilgard survived him.

Hilgard died in Berkeley, California.  University of California, Berkeley President Benjamin Ide Wheeler remarked at the memorial service for Eugene Hilgard on January 30, 1916: “We are met here today as a community of scholars, whose eldest brother, having finished his long toil under the conflict of day and night, has gone peacefully out into the perfect light.  We are met, not to bid him farewell, but to be reminded of him, to rejoice in his triumph, to reaffirm our love toward him, and thereby to quicken with one another the spiritual bonds of our guild.  Eugene Woldemar Hilgard has kept the faith.  He has lived among his fellow men in active respect for the principles of order and authority.  He has built his life into one of the most helpful institutional forms of human society.  He has fulfilled the best traditions of a refined and honourable family of the Rhenish Palatinate, out of whose stock he came.  He has been a gentleman.  He has been true to the best methods and standard of the science in whose fields he toiled.  He has been loyal to the best traditions and standards of academic life.  He has kept the faith.”2

Eugene Hilgard’s brother, Julius Erasmus Hilgard (7 January 1825-1890), was also a scientist.  Julius studied civil engineering and went on to become the Chief of the Bureau of the Coast Survey in Washington, D.C.  He was a delegate to the International Metrical Commission in Paris in 1872.4

PUBLICATIONS (incomplete list):
Hilgard, E.W. (1854)  Beitrage zur Kenntniss de Lichtflamme.  Inaugural Dissertation; Heidelberg.  Ann. Chem. and Pharm., Vol. XCII, p. 129.
--- (1857)  On the quantitative assay of Chromium by blowpipe processes.  In full:  Proc. Amer. Ass’n. Adv. Sci., Montreal meeting.  In abstract:  Am. Journ. Sci., Sept.
--- (1858)  Condition of the geological and agricultural survey of the State of Mississippi.  State report, Jackson, Miss.
--- (1860)  Geology and agriculture of the State of Mississippi (391 pp. and map).  State report, Jackson, Miss.
--- (1861)  Soils and marls of Mississippi.  Southern Planter, Jan. 6.
--- (1861)  Southern substitute for coal oil.  Southern Rural Gentleman, Sept. 14.
--- (1861)  Coal for winter.  Southern Rural Gentleman, Oct. 9.
--- (1861)  Our manure supplies; Cottonseed oil cake.  Southern Rural Gentleman, Oct.
--- (1862)  The manufacture of salt; Report to the Governor of Mississippi.  June.
--- (1862)  The salt question.  Mississippian, Sept. 8.
--- (1866)  On the Quaternary Formations of the State of Mississippi.  Am. Journ. Sci., May.
--- (1866)  Remarks on the New Division of the Eocene, or Shell Bluff Group, proposed by Mr. Conrad.  Am. Journ. Sci., July.
--- (1866)  Rational Agriculture.  Southern Ruralist, May.
--- (1866)  Maintainance of fertility in our cotton Fields.  Clarion, Sept.
--- (1866)  Remarks on the Drift of the Western and Southern States, and its relations to the Glacier and Iceberg Theories.  Am. Journ. Sci., Nov.
--- (1867)  On the Tertiary Formations of Mississippi and Alabama.  Am. Journ. Sci., Jan.
--- (1868)  On the condition of our knowledge of the processes in luminous hydrocarbon flames.  Proc. Am. Ass’n. Adv. Sci., Chicago meeting; Am. Journ. Sci., Vol. 47, No. 140.
--- (1869) On the geology of lower Louisiana and the rock salt deposit of Petite Anse Island.  Am. Journ. Sci., Jan.
--- (1869)  Outlines of a geological reconnaissance through a portion of Louisiana.  New Orleans Times.
--- (1869)  Gelogisches der Sudweststaaten.  Die Neue Welt, Aug. 15.
--- (1869)  Petroleum and sulphur of Calcasieu, La.  New Orleans Times, Sept. 12.
--- (1869)  Preliminary report to the New Orleans Academy of Sciences of a geological reconnaissance of Louisiana.  DeBow’s Review, Sept.
--- (1869)  Summary of the results of a late geological reconnaissance of Louisiana.  Am. Journ. Sci., Nov.
--- (1870)  Report on the geological age of the Mississippi Delta.  Rept. U.S. Eng. Dept., Washington.
--- (1870)  Homemade and commercial manures.  Holly Springs Reporter, March.
--- (1870)  Compost vs. commercial manures.  Southland, Feb.
--- (1870)  The value of cottonseed.  Southland, Sept.
--- (1870)  On the maintenance of fertility in soils.  Rural Carolinian, Nov. and Dec.
--- (1871)  On the geology of the Delta and the Mudlumps of the Passes of the Mississippi.  Am. Journ. Sci., 3rd series, Vol. 1.
--- (1871)  On the geological history of the Gulf of Mexico.  Proc. Am. Ass’n. Adv. Sci., Indianapolis meeting; Am. Journ. Sci., Dec.; Am. Naturalist, Ass’n. Number.
--- (1871)  Organization on the Department of Agriculture and the Mechanic Arts in the University of Mississippi.  Oxford, Mississippi, Aug.
--- (1871)  Memoir on the geology of Louisiana and the rock salt deposit on Petite Anse Island.  With plates & diagrams.  Smithsonian Contr. To Knowledge, lge.4to. (No. 248).
--- (1872)  On some point in the geology of the Southwest.   Am. Journ. Sci., Oct.
--- (1872)  On soil analyses and their utility.  Am. Journ. Sci., Dec.; Proc. Am. Ass’n. Adv. Sci., Dubuque meeting.
--- (1872)  Address on progressive agriculture and industrial education, delivered at the Mississippi State Fair, November.  Clarion Book Office.
--- (1872)  Fertilizers.  Southland, Sept. 7.
--- (1872)  Rules and principles; Agricultural problems.  Southern Farmer.
--- (1872)  The art of bread-making.  Southern Farmer.
--- (1873)  Supplemental and final report of a geological reconnaissance of the State of Louisiana.  New Orleans Acad. Of Sci., and the Bureau of Immigration.
--- (1873)  On the silt analyses of soils and clays.  Am. Ass’n. Adv. Sci., Portland meeting; Am. Journ. Sci., Oct. and Nov.
--- (1874)  Silt analyses of Mississippi soils and subsoils.  Proc. Am. Ass’n. Adv. Sci. ; Am. Journ. Sci., Jan.
--- (1874)  Note on lignite beds and their underclays.  Am. Journ. Sci., March.
--- (1874)  On Mallet’s Theory of Vulcanicity.  Am. Journ. Sci., June.
--- (1874)  On the study of natural science in the common schools.  Michigan Teacher, March; Proc. Mich. Teachers’ Ass’n., at Kalamazoo.
--- (1875)  Articles on “Artesian Wells,” “Vine Culture,” “Wines & Wine-making,” IN Johnson’s Universal Cyclopedia.
--- (1875)  Phylloxera or Vine Louse, lecture delivered in San Francisco, Nov. 23.  University Press, Berkeley, California.”
--- (1877)  An industrial survey, transmission of soil specimens, Etc.  Bulletin No. 26, Univ. of Cal. Expt. Station.
--- (1877)  [First] Report to the President of the University of California, on the work of the Agriculture Department, Dec., Sacramento.
--- (1878)  Destruction of the Ground Squirrel by use of bisulphid of carbon.  Bulletin No. 32, Univ. of Cal. Expt. Station.
--- (1878)  Borings made between Lake Borgne and the Mississippi River, in 1874, at the site proposed as an outlet for floodwaters.  Report of the U.S. Engineering Dept., with maps & plates.
--- (1878)  The agriculture & soils of California.  Report of the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture.
--- (1879)  [Second] Report of the Department of Agriculture of the University of California.  Sacramento.
--- (1879)  The Loess of the Mississippi Valley and the Aeolian Hypothesis.  Am. Journ. Sci., Aug.
--- (1879)  On the flocculation of particles, and its physical and chemical bearings.  Am. Journ. Sci.,  Feb.; In translation:  Forschungen aus dem Gebiete de Agriculuturphysic.
--- (1880)  Physical geography of the State of Mississippi. IN Eclectic Series.  Van Antwerp, Bragg & Co., Cincinnati.
--- (1880)  The permanent maintenance of our vinyards.  First Report of the State Viticultural Commission of California.
--- (1881)  [Third] Report of the Department of Agriculture of the University of California.  Sacramento.
--- (1881)  The Later Tertiary of the Gulf of Mexico.  Am. Journ. Sci., July, with colored geological map.
--- (1881)  The objects and interpretations of soil analysis.  Am. Journ. Sci., Sept.
--- (1882)  Progress in agriculture by education and government aid.  Atlantic Monthly,  April & May.
--- (1882)  Report on the climatic and agricultural features and the agricultural practice and needs of the arid regions of the Pacific Slope.  Made under the direction of the U.S. Commissioner of Agriculture, by E.W. Hilgard, J.C. Jones, and R.W. Furnas, Commissioners.  Washington, D.C.
--- (1882)  Industrial education and the kindergarten.  San Francisco.  Kindergarten Messenger and the New Education, Vol. 6, Nos. 11-12.
--- (1882)  The absorption of hygroscopic moisture by soils under varying conditions.  Porc. Am. Soc. Prom. Agr. Sci.
--- (1882)  [Fourth] Report of the Department of Agriculture of the University of California.  Sacramento.
--- (1882)  Einige Bemerkungen neber die Schlaemmanalyse.  Wollny’s Forschungen auf dem Gebiete der Agriculturphysik, Vol. 6.
--- (1882)  Report on the cotton production of the United States.  Tenth U.S. Census,  Vols. V and VI, 4to., embracing as personal work, apart from editorial:  (a) General discussion of the results of the 10th Census as regards cotton production.  With 2 maps.; (b)  Discussion of measurements of cotton fiber.; (c)  The production and uses of cotton-seed, and the cotton-seed oil industry.; (d)  Soil investigations:  Introduction to the description of States.; (e)  General features of the alluvial plain of the Mississippi below the Mouth of the Ohio.; (f) Report on the cotton production and agricultural features of the State of Louisiana.  With 2 colored maps.; (g)  Report, etc., of the State of Mississippi.  With 2 colored maps.; (h)  Report, etc. of the State of California.  With 2 colored maps.
--- (1883)  Report of Professors E.W. Hilgard and F.V. Hopkins, upon the examination of specimens from borings on the Mississippi River, between Memphis and Vicksburg.  Rep. Mississippi River Commission for 1883, p. 479.
--- (1883)  The salines of Louisiana.  U.S. Geological Survey Report on the Mineral Resources of the United States, p. 554.
--- (1883)  Soils of the Washington Territory.  1.  The Yakima Basin, 2.  The Colville Peninsula.  Letterpress and 2 colored maps; lge. Folio.  Issued by the Northern Transcontinental Survey  (N.P.R.R.).
--- (1884)  The asphaltum deposits of California.  U.S. Geological Survey, Mineral Resources of the United States.
--- (1884)  [Fifth] Report of the Department of Agriculture of the University of California.  Sacramento.
--- (1884)  Report on the physical and agricultural features of the State of California, with a discussion of the present and future of cotton production in the state.
--- (1884)  Report on the agricultural features of Eastern Washington Territory, made under the auspices of the Northern Transcontinental Survey.  Yakima, Colville, Spokane, and Vermillion River Regions.  The Northwest, St. Paul.
--- (1885)  Ueber die Bedeutung der hygroscopischen Bodenfenchtigkeit fuer die Vegetation.  Wallny’s Forschungen auf dem Gebiete der Agriculturphysik, Vol. 8, p. 53.
--- (1885)  The U.S. Department of Agriculture; Suggestions for its improvement.  Pacific Rural Express, Jan. 3.
--- (1885)  The Old Tertiary of the Southwest.  Am. Journ. Sci., Oct.
--- (1885)  The classification and Paleontology of the United States Tertiary deposits.  Science 6:  44.
--- (1885)  On some redeeming features of alkali soils.  Proc. Am. Soc. Prom. Agr. Sci.
--- (1885)  The Phylloxera at Berkeley.  Statement by the Professor of Agriculture.  State Office, Sacramento.
--- (1886)  Report of viticulture work during the seasons 1883-4, and 1884-5, with notes on the vintage of 1885-6.  Appendix to the Report of the College of Agriculture of the University of California, for 1884.  Sacramento.
--- (1886)  The beet sugar industry of California.  Overland Monthly, Dec.
--- (1886)  Report on the viticultural work done during the seasons 1885 and 1886, at the Viticulture Laboratory of the University of California.  Sacramento.
--- (1886)  On alkali soils, and their relation to irrigation.  Sacramento.
--- (1886)  [Sixth] Report of the Department of Agriculture of the University of California.  Sacramento.
--- (1886)  University of California Publications.  – Bulletins, College of Agriculture.  (Earlier bulletins have all been re-published in the annual reports.)  Sacramento.
          Bulletin No. 65.  Shall California make sophisticated wines?
          Bulletin No. 66.  Principles and practice of Pasteurization.
          Bulletin No. 67.  Misconception of the University viticultural work.
          Bulletin No. 68.  Influence of mode of fermentation on the color of wines.
          Bulletin No. 69.  Wine colors and color wines.
          Bulletin No. 70.  Abnormal deposits on vine leaves; Mysterious death of vines; Remedy for the Anthracnose of vines.
          Bulletin No. 72.  Sugar beets at Fresno.
          Bulletin No. 74.  Vintage work and instruction in the Viticultural Laboratory in 1887; Choice in resistant stocks.
          Bulletin No. 75.  Difficult fermentations.
          Bulletin No. 77.  Extraction or color and tannin during red-wine fermentation.
          Bulletin No. 78.  Report on the establishment of outlying stations.
          Bulletin No. 80.  Progress of the Experiment Station work.
--- (1886)  Reports of experiments on methods of fermentation and related subjects. [complete citation lacking]
--- (1886)  The effects of lime in soils and the development of Plants.  Proc. Soc. Prom. Agric. Sci.; Forschungen auf d. Gebiete der Agric. Phys., Vol. X; Centralblatt fur agrikulturchemie, Vol. 16.
--- (1887)  The methods of mechanical soil analysis.  Porc. Soc. Prom. Agric. Sci.
--- (1887)  Ueber den Einfluss dek Kalkes als Bodenbestandtheil auf die Entwicklungsweise de Pflanzen.  (Revised translation of the preceding.) Wollny’s Forschungen auf dem Gebiete der Agrikulturphysik, Vol. 10.
--- (1887)  The processes of soil formation from the northwestern basalts.  Proc. Am. Soc. Prom. Agric. Sci.
--- (1887)  The equivalent in time of the American marine and intracontinental terranes.  Science 9:  535.
--- (1888)  Reports on the methods of fermentation and related subjects, made during the years 1886 and 1887.  Sacramento.
Hilgard, E.W. and A. H. Weber  (1888)  On the mutual reactions of carbonates, sulphates, and chlorides of the alkaline earths and alkalies.  Proc. Soc. Prom. Agric. Sci.
Hilgard, E.W. (1889)  Circular concerning analyses of Waters. University of California.
--- (1889)  Report of the Professor in charge to the President of the University (on the conditions of the Agricultural College & Experiment Station).  Sacramento.
--- (1889)  Reports of examinations of water, water supply, and related subjects, during the years 1886 to 1889.  Calif. Expt. Station.  Sacramento.
--- (1889)  Bulletin No. 82, Calif. Expt. Station.  The Lakes of the San Joaquin Valley.
--- (1889)  Bulletin No. 83, Calif. Expt. Station.  The rise of alkali in the San Joaquin Valley.
--- (1890)  Report of the College of Agriculture, University of California, for the two years ending June 30, 1890.  Sacramento.
--- (1890)  Report on the asphaltum mine of the Ventura Asphalt Company.  Report of the State Minerologist.  Sacramento.
--- (1890)  Report on the University of California Experiment Stations and descriptions of each region represented. (a)  Climate, topography, soils, cultures and cross-country sections of the Bay Region, the Foothills, the Coast Range, San Joaquin Valley, and Tulare Basin.;  (b)  Alkali, alkali soils, their value and reclamation.; (c)  Soil investigation, its methods & results.
--- (1891)  Report of the work of the University of California Experiment Station for 1890.  (a)  Work in the General Laboratory on soils, alkali, waters, etc. ; (b)  Preservation of fluids for fresh fruit.; (c)  The sulfuring of dried fruits.; (d) The use of fertilizers in California; Fertilizing value of Greasewood.; (e)  The production of ramie in Califormia.; (f)  The weeds of California.  (also in Garden & Forest.)
--- (1891)  Soil studies and soil maps.  Overland Monthly,  Dec.; Proc. Am. Soc. Prom. Agric. Sci.
--- (1891)  The Cienegas of southern California.  Bull. Geol. Of Am., Vol. 3.
--- (1891)  Orange Sand, Lagrange and Appomattox.  Am. Geologist, Vol. 8.
--- (1892)  Black soils.  Agr. Sci., Jan.
--- (1892)  Crops and fertilizers with reference to California soils and practice.  Bull. 61, Cal. State Board of Horticulture.
Hilgard, E.W. and L. Paparelli (1892)  Report of viticulture work during 1887 to 1889.  Red wine graps.  University of Calif. Expt. Station.
Hilgard, E.W. (1892)  Report of the work of the University of California Experiment Stations for 1891-2.  (a)  Honey Lake Valley lands.; (b)  Sulfuring in fruit drying.; (c)  Methods of physical and chemical soil analyses. 
--- (1892)  Alkali soils, irrigation and drainage, in their mutual relations.  California Expt. Stations.  (a)  Alkali soils and irrigation waters of California.; (b)  Lake and river waters of California and their quality for irrigation purposes.; (c)  Artesian waters of California.; (d)  Irrigation and alkali in India.
--- (1892)  Zur Bestimmung der Wassercapacitaet der Bodenarten.  Wollny’s Forschungen Agr. Phys., Vol. 15.
--- (1892)  Ueber die Beziehungen zwischen Humusbildung und Kalkgehalt der Bodenarten.  Wolln. Forsch. Agr. Phys., Vol. 15.
--- (1892)  The age and origin of the Lafayette Formation.  Am. Jour. Sci., May.
--- (1892)  The sampling of soilos for analysis.  Agr. Sci. 6(6); Wolln. Forsch. Agr. Phys., Vol. 15.
--- (1892)  The determination of clays in soils.  Agr. Sci. 6(4); Wolln. Forsch. Agr. Phys.,Vol. 16.
--- (1892)  The mechanical analysis of soils.  Agr. Sci. 6(12); Wolln. Forsch. Agr. Phys.,  Vol. 16.
--- (1892)  Criticism of “Soil Investigations,” by Milton Whitney.  Agr. Sci., June.
--- (1892)  A report on the relations of soil to climate.  Bulletin No. 3 of the U.S. Weather Bureau.  Government Office.
--- (1892)  Ueber den Einfluss des Klimes auf die Bildung und Zusammensetzug des Bodens.  (Revised translation of the preceding by the author.)  Wollny’s Forschungen, Vol. 16; separate edition by Winter, Heidelberg.
--- (1892)  De l’influence du Climate sur la formation et la composition de sols.  Revised by the author and translated by Jean Vilbouchevich.  Annals de la science agonomique francaise et etrangere, par Louis Grandeau.  Paris.
--- (1892)  Ueber den Einfluss einiger klimatishcen und Bodenverhaltnissee auf die altere kultur.  Verhandl. Der deutschen physiologischen Gesellschaft zu Berlin, Dec.
Hilgard, E.W. and M.E. Jaffa (1892)  Farther investigations on the mutual reactions of carbonates, sulfates and chlorides of the alkaline earths and alkalies.  Proc. Soc. Prom. Agr. Sci.
Hilgard, E.W. (1892)  Soil investigation and soil physics.  Agr. Sci. 6(12).
--- (1893)  Die Bodenverhatlnisse Californiens.  Zeitschrift d. deutschen geologischen Gesellschaft, Berlin.
--- (1893)  Skizze de physikalischen und industriellen Geogrpahie Californiens.  Verhandlungen der Gesellschaft fur Erdkunde zu Berlin.
--- (1893)  Solvents for soil analysis.  Agr. Sci.
--- (1893)  Die Feldwanze und deren Vernichtung durch Infection.  Gartenflora.
--- (1893)  Bibliographical Memoir of Julius Erasmus Hilgard, 1825-1890.  Memoirs of the National Academy of Sciences.
--- (1893)  Die Bildungsweise der Alkalicarbonate in der Natur.  Berichte der Deutsch. Chem. Gesellschaft, 25’ ter Jahrg., No. 19.
--- (1893)  Kritik ueber Whitney’s “Some Physical Properties of Soils,” etc.  Wollny’s Forsch. Agr. Phys., Vol. 16.
--- (1893)  Ueber die Methoden und Resultate amerikanischer Bodenuntersuchungen.  Vortrag vor der Versammlung des Verbandes der Deutchen Vers. Stationen in Berlin, Jan., and Die landw. Versuchsstationen, Vol. 42.
--- (1906)  Soils, their formation, properties, composition, and relations to climate and plant growth in the humid and arid regions.
Hilgard, E.W.  and Osterhout.  (? ) Agriculture for Schools of the Pacific Slope.  (Incomplete citation.)


1.       Hilgard, E.W. (1895)  Memoir of Julius Erasmus Higard.  1825-1890. National Academy of Sciences Biographical Memoirs, Vol. 3:  327-338. Washington, D.C.:  Judd & Detweiler, Printers.

2.      Wheeler, Benjamin I. (1916)  Addresses at a memorial service in honor of Dr. E.W. Hilgard, University of California, January 30, 1916.  University of California Chronicle, Vol. XVIII, No. 2, Distributed by the University of California Agricultural Experiment Station.  Berkeley:  University of California Press.  Page 3.

3.      Wickson, E.J. (1916) “A biographical outline.”  Addresses at a memorial service in honor of Dr. E.W. Hilgard, University of California, January 30, 1916. University of California Chronicle, Vol. XVIII, No. 2, Distributed by the University of California Agricultural Experiment Station.  Berkeley:  University of California Press.  Pages 3-21.

4.      Anonymous (1875)  Sketch of Professor Hilgard.  Popular Science Monthly, Volume 7.  [page numbers unknown] 

5.      “Eugene W. Hilgard.”  Wipipedia.  Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., 24 March 2012.  Web.  4 May 2012.

6.      Loughridge, R. H.  (1016)  The life-work of Professor Hilgard.  Addresses at a memorial service in honor of Dr. E.W. Hilgard, University of California, January 30, 1916. University of California Chronicle, Vol. XVIII, No. 2, Distributed by the University of California Agricultural Experiment Station.  Berkeley:  University of California Press.  Pages 21-31.

7.  accessed on 17 July 2012 




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University of North Carolina Herbarium
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Last Updated: 2 March 2016